GUDUNMOWAR MUSULMAN FARKO GA KIWON LAFIYA

 

Image  Mutane da dama suna dauka tunda likitanci na zamani daga turawan yamma ne, ba shi da wata alaka da addini kenan saboda ba su riki addini sosai ba. Sabanin haka a iya cewa gudunmowar manyan addinan duniya biyu tana daga cikin manyan abubuwan da suka gina harkar lafiya ta zamani.

Tun a zamanin da kunne ya girmi kaka, wato wajen shekaru kusan dubu goma da suka wuce an san harkar magani a duniya, a kasashe irinsu Misra, da Farisa, da Birnin Sin da kuma Indiya. Amma magunguna ne na saiwoyi da ganyayyaki da ‘yan dabaru a wancan lokacin. Daga bisani ne ilmin zamani ya vullo daga kasashen yamma.

Likitancin wannan zamani ya samo asali ne daga kasar Girka tun a shekarun 2000 kafin zuwan Annabi Isa (2000 BC) ta hannun wani mai suna Hippocrates, wanda bai da wani addini. Ya zauna a kan karan kansa ya karanci dan Adam ciki da bai, da ‘yan magungunan da kowane sashen jiki ya fi bukata, ya riqa rubutawa yana kuma koyar da tunanin nasa, daliban nasa ma suna qara tasu fahimtar. A haka ilmin sanin dan Adam ya bunkasa har ta zo sai da aka kafa Jami’a babba a wannan kasa ta koyar da aikin likita, wadda ta zamo cibiyar bixar ilmi daga ko ina a Nahiyar Turai.

Yayin da Musulunci ya shiga qasashen yamma ta kasar Spaniya (Andalus) a shekaru 650 bayan zuwan Annabi Isa (650 AD) ya tarar da irin wannan ilmi na likitanci amma bai rushe shi ba. Wasu daga cikin Musulman wannan zamani sai suka dukufa suka shiga makarantun koyar da aikin likitanci suka koya suka kuma qara nasu sanin da fahimta akan wadancan na turawan. Kuma har yau wasu daga cikin nasu qarin na nan a cikin manhajar ilmin ba a rushesu ba. Wani abin haushi da turawan yamma na yanzu suke yi shine na boye sunayen Musuluncin wadannan mutane, su sa musu nasu na turanci wai don a ce suma nasu ne.

Ga kadan daga cikin irin wadannan mashahuran Musulman da suka fara kirkiro abubuwan da har yanzu ake amfani da su: An ba da duka sunayensu na ainihi da na turancin da kuma zamanin da suka zo.

 

Muhammad bin Zakariyya Al-Rhazi – Rhazes (865-925 AD): Mutumin kasar Farisa (qasar Iran ta yanzu), wanda ya ba da gudunmowar da har a yau ba wanda ya ba da irinta a harkar lafiya. Domin ba sau daya ba, ba sau biyu ba, ya sha kawo bayanai na canjin tunani da hujjoji masu gamsarwa a harkar lafiya. Misali, shine wanda ya fara bambance ciwon Agana (mai sa cin zanzana, wanda kuma aka riga aka ga bayanta a yanzu) da Bakon dauro, wanda duka qwayar cutar virus ce ke kawowa. Shine kuma wanda ya kirkiro kayan aikin likita da dama irinsu.   

Ya rubuta littafai akan harkar lafiya fiye da dari, fitacce a ciki Al-Hawi, wasu kundin bayanai akan aikin likita da ya shafi magunguna da yadda suke aiki a jikinmu.

A wani shagube da ya tava yi wa wani mai maganin ciwon ido, wanda ya kawo masa magani don ya sa a idonsa, sai ya tambayeshi yayi masa bayani yadda ido ke aiki, amma ya kasa, don haka ya ce maganin qarya ne. Wannan ne ke mana tuni da taka-tsantsan wajen sayen magunguna a wurin jahilai.

 

Ali Ibn Abbas – Haly Abbas (920-994 AD): Shima daga Farisa ya fito kuma ana ji da shi a duniyar likitanci. Ya ba da gudunmowa ta hanyar rubuta littafai cikin harshen larabci wadanda suka fi bayani akan bangaren kwakwalwa da cutukanta, da bayanan falsafar binciken kimiyya irin na zamani

 

Abul Qasim Al-Zahrawi – Abulcasis (936- 1013 AD): Wanda yake Balarabe ne wanda aka haifa a kasar Spaniya. Yayi fice wajen zama likitan tiyata na farko na zamani a duniyar musulunci, saboda kirkiro kayan aiki na leqa wurare da dama na jikin mutum da yayi, fiye da dari biyu, wadanda daga sune aka qera na wannan zamani. Shine kuma ya fara nunawa duniya cewa za a iya samun juna biyu a wajen mahaifa saboda tiyatar da ya sha yi a wannan bangare.

Ya zama likitan Khalifan Musulunci a kasar Spaniya wato Khalifa Al-Hakam kuma ya rubuta littafai da dama akan aikin tiyata, wanda har yanzu akan samu manhajojin a littafan wannan zamani. Domin qarin bayani za a iya bincikar Kitabut Tasrif.

 

Abu Ali Ibn Sina- Avicenna (980-1037): Shima mutumin kasar Faris wanda yake da baiwar kaifin hadda da tunani mai zurfi. Ya haddace Al-Qurani yana xan shekaru goma kacal, sa’annan ya zama likita yana dan shekara sha shida. Yayi aikin duba marasa lafiya kyauta a wannan birni kuma ya zama babban likitan Khalifan garin.

Daga baya yayi Hijra ya nufi yamma inda a hanya ya rubuta littafai na kundi akan bayanai na kula da lafiya da aikin likita, ya kuma koyar da dalibai. Wannan kundi wanda ake kira ‘Kaanun fid Dibb’ an daxe ana amfani da shi a jami’o’in qasashen yamma na wancan lokaci a matsayin littafin koyarwa.

Ga kuma irinsu Ishaq Al-Ruhawi dan kasar Turkiya wanda ya fara bayani akan tarbiyyar likitoci wato yin tsantseni da taka-tsantsan akan aikin likita da hukuncin da ya kamata a ba likitoci masu ganganci da aiki a cikin littafinsa mai suna Adab Al-Tabib. Shine kuma ya fara bayanin cewa kowane sabon abu aka samar a kimiyar likita dole a samu wasu kwararru a aikin su zurfafa bincike don tabbatar da sabon bayanin ko karyata shi.

Sai kuma wasu da dama irinsu mallaman wadannan da muka lissafa wadanda basu yi fice kamar dalibansu ba; Misali mallamin Al Razi Abu Hassan Al-Tabari wanda yayi fice a harkar lafiyar yara.

Akwai kuma irinsu Abu Alhassan Ibn Al-Nafis likitan kasar Suriya wadanda turawa ma basu sani ba, ko kuma suka sani amma suka qi ambatonsu, wanda ya fara bayanin yadda jini ke zagaya jikinmu, tun kafin ma a haifi baturen nan William Harvey wanda suka ce shi ya fara wannan bayani. Da dai sauran ire-irensu.  

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